Food Any substance that provides nutritional support to an organism. Food can be of animal, plant, or fungal origin and includes essential nutrients such as vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, and minerals. An organism ingests the substance and its cells absorb it to produce energy, sustain life, or stimulate growth. Different animals have different feeding habits that meet their individual metabolisms. These behaviours are often designed to fit specific ecological contexts.
Food for Humans
Omnivores are adaptable and can find food in many ecosystems. Humans have always had two main ways to obtain food: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Humans settled in agriculture as a lifestyle, influenced by their geographic location and the agricultural opportunities available. Many cuisines and culinary arts have been created due to cultural and geographic differences. International trade and globalization have made it easier for ingredients to be available from other cultures, leading to a more diverse exchange of food traditions and practices.
The Development of Food
The majority of food energy needed by an ever-increasing global population is provided by the industrial food sector. This industry produces food using intensive agriculture and distributes it via complex food processing and distribution systems. The conventional agricultural system relies heavily upon fossil fuels. This means that 37% of global greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the food and agriculture system.  The global response to climate changes requires mitigation measures that address the carbon intensity and food waste.
The food system has significant effects on many other social and political issues, including sustainability, biodiversity, economics and population growth. Water supply and access to food are also important. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which recognizes the “right to food” as a human right, also acknowledges the “right to a decent standard of living, including sufficient food” and the “fundamental right not to be hungry”. Food security is an important international policy priority because of these fundamental rights. For example, Sustainable Development Goal 2 “Zero Hunger” is intended to end hunger by 2030. International agencies such as the International Association for Food Protection and the World Resources Institute monitor food safety and security. They also have oversight over the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Food Information Council.